Facts on Afghanistan

Total Area 652,230 square kilometers (251826.25 square miles)
Political Structure  Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is made up of 34 provinces which are administrative divisions centrally managed by Kabul through governors who are directly appointed by and serve as the president’s representatives
System of government Under the new constitution, ratified January 26, 2004, the system of government is presidential with a national assembly. The president is both head of the state and chief executive. The bicameral National Assembly consists of the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats, two-thirds of members elected from provincial councils for four-year terms, and one-third nominated by the president for five-year terms) and the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (no more than 250 seats; members directly elected in popular elections for five-year terms
Population Total population of Afghanistan for the year 1390 (2011-12), is estimated to be around 27.76 million, of which 51 percent are male and 49 percent are females. Population growth rate: 2.7%. There has not been an official census for over 30 years
Economic System:
 

Free Market Economy GDP: $ 19.85 Billion (2012 Estimate by WB)

GDP/capita: $ 715

Currency: Afghani(s)

Population below poverty line: 36%

Exports: $376 million

Imports: $6.39 billion

Due to decades of conflict the economy of Afghanistan had sustained critical wounds. The infrastructure has been severely damaged and the economy was on a free fall. However, since the collapse of Taliban and influx of foreign aid the economy has recovered. The recovery is aided by development of agriculture sector and significant growth of the services sector. The state, still, faces obstacles such as extending the rule of law, in promoting sustained and balanced economic growth. The international community has contributed $67 billion dollars in aid to Afghanistan in nine donor conferences between 2003-10. In Tokyo conference, convened in 2012, donors pledged further $16 billion of civilian aid through 2017

Major ethnic groups Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimaq, Turkmen, Baloch and several other minorities.
Major languages Pashto (official), Afghan Persian or Dari (official), Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) and 30 other minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) Much bilingualism, but Dari functions as the lingua franca Note: As per the constitution Turkic languages; Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashai, Nuristani, and Pamiri serve as the third official languages in areas where they form local majorities.
Major religions Islam: Predominantly Sunni with Shia (Twelver & Ismaili) minorities.
Time UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate Arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Exchange rate AFN/USD : 56.7 as of August 27, 2013
Data Sources

Central statistics organization Afghanistan, Da Afghanistan Bank, Ministry of Finance, WB Afghanistan Economic updates 2013